Managers in the organization must manage the knowledge not only of employees but also of business approaches. There are many forms of knowledge management.
Several forms of knowledge management
Mentoring is a very old methodology, very effective, but it is not widely used today. It develops thanks to the understanding that a person can achieve a lot and reveal his needs and potential when he has the support of a more experienced colleague. Reference: “Strategies for the formation and use of knowledge in the organization”, https://pgov.org/strategies-knowledge-organization/
This is the beginning of many internship programs. The mentoring process can be divided into task setting, performance control, and feedback.
Thus, the young colleague reaches the necessary knowledge and skills faster, the feeling of confidence is created. At the moment she is better known as coaching.
In this regard, trust is most important. It comes first, before all knowledge and skills. Coaching helps you come to the right decision.
Storytelling is also an original method of imparting implicit knowledge. It is especially useful for organizations whose employees often travel on business trips, and their experience is important to reuse.
After returning, the second person tells not only facts but also shares feelings and impressions.
To gather this knowledge in an informal setting, a structured interview is conducted, which is kept in an appropriate database. It is also a way to form a corporate culture.
Corporate myths and legends. Usually, the main characters are the founder of the organization, the general manager, or another popular person.
They are written by professional writers or journalists.
Profiles of knowledge. A well-known but unpopular method for extracting implicit knowledge.
The reason for this is the need to exercise full control over the actions of employees, it is not voluntary.
The knowledge map allows employees to see what experience and knowledge they already have in the company and where the white spots are. Visualizes knowledge and its owners.
Encyclopedias and reference books
Encyclopedias and reference books contain explicit and implicit knowledge.
The unstructured part includes personal characteristics, information about the family, interests, hobbies, hobbies, etc. Everyone fills in on their page what they consider necessary and important. They are very convenient for organizations with a very branched structure.
It is important to develop 3K – coordination, cooperation, and communication (person to person and person with information). Do not underestimate the role of motivation (material and immaterial and the factor of production necessity.).
A knowledge audit is a process of systematic scientific research and evaluation of the explicit (concentrated in documents and databases) and implicit knowledge of the organization. Reference: “Knowledge management models”, https://www.businesspad.org/knowledge-management-models/
Among the reasons for the failure of many knowledge management projects is the lack of a prior knowledge audit – the key knowledge available, the knowledge required, and how to manage it are not defined.
It is carried out in 5 stages: preparatory stage, audit, analysis of the results (creation of a knowledge map), formulation of recommendations, development of an action strategy.
Reliability and loyalty are basic security conditions. The unreliable can be loyal. Disloyalty – this is the degree of internal readiness to violate the rules of the organization. Reference: “What are Information and Knowledge?”, https://managementwire.wordpress.com/2021/07/20/what-are-information-and-knowledge/
Unreliability is the potential for violating the organization’s code of conduct. Restrictive rules and norms and an active person are needed for unreliability to occur.
Mental and economic satisfaction, the value system of the personality, and external circumstances play a special role. Loyalty changes very quickly, reliability changes more slowly.
Emergence and development of the concept of knowledge management
In 1959, in his book The Age of Social Transformation, Peter Drucker introduced the term knowledge worker.
In his description, he emphasizes that Chetova is a person with higher education, as a result of which he has acquired the ability to acquire, generate and work with different types of knowledge.
On this basis, he develops a new, creative attitude to work and a more specific way of thinking. Especially important is the fact that this type of worker carries with them and is the real owner of the means of labor.
Until the late 1980s, no one saw knowledge as an asset to the organization.
The first publications on the subject appeared on the pages of Fortune, The Economist, Forbes magazines.
The theory of post-industrial society is developing (McLuhan, Tofler). In 1964, the monograph of the Austrian scientist Michael Polanyi Personal Knowledge was published, in which he developed the concept of implicit knowledge. Reference: “Information and knowledge”, https://businessprogrammanagement.wordpress.com/2021/07/20/information-and-knowledge/
In the period 1970-1980, the concept of information management was developed (VM Glushkov, Yu. A. Schreider, LS Kazachkov).
The beginning of the second stage is the book by the Swedish professor of knowledge management Carl Erik Sveiby The Knowledge Company. In 1987, the first scientific conference on knowledge management was held at Purdue University (Lafayette, Indiana).
European (knowledge measurement), American (direct knowledge management) and Japanese (knowledge creation) approaches are gradually being formed.
In 1990, Peter Senge’s book The Fifth Discipline was published, in which he launched the idea of a learning organization.
In 1991, I. Nonaka published the article The Knowledge-Creating Company, through which he introduced the term tacit knowledge.
1994 Carl Sweiby defends her first dissertation on the subject.
In 1995, the monograph by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaki Takeuchi The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies the Dynamics of Innovation was published, which became a significant event in documenting the idea of knowledge management. Today, this is the most cited work in this field.
It is believed that since 1996 the peak of popularity of the topic has begun.
There is a conscious need not only to possess knowledge but also to create it.
The first specializations appeared (Harvard, Berkeley); the first department was opened in Berkeley and Ikujiro Nonaka was appointed professor – Mr. Knowledge. In 1998, IFLA also joined the subject.